Sony's Image Sensor Exmor R is the back-illuminated CMOS image sensor with improved sensitivity
and noise reduction - the key factors to enhancing image quality, while radically realigning
their fundamental pixel structure from front-illumination to back-illumination.
It has retained the advantages of CMOS image sensors such as low power consumption and high-speed operation.
With a conventional front-illumination structure, the metal wiring and transistors on the surface of the silicon
substrate that form the sensor's light-sensitive area (photo-diode) impede photon gathering carried out
by the on-chip lens, and this has also been an important issue in the miniaturization of pixels
and widening optical angle response. A back-illuminated structure minimizes the degradation of sensitivity
to optical angle response, while also increasing the amount of light that enters each pixel due to the lack
of obstacles such as metal wiring and transistors that have been moved to the reverse of the silicon substrate.
However, compared to conventional front-illuminated structures, back-illuminated structures commonly causes p
and also cause a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio. To overcome this Sony has newly developed a unique
photo-diode structure and on-chip lens optimized for back-illuminated structures, that achieves a higher sensitivity and a lower random noise without light by reducing noise, dark current and defect pixels compared to the
conventional front-illuminated structure. Additionally, Sony's advanced technologies such as high-precision
alignment have addressed any color mixture problems.
The key to increased speed of Sony's CMOS Image Sensor Exmor can be found in parallel signal processing.
CMOS image sensors have analog-digital (A/D) conversion circuits that convert analog pixel signals into digital signals (Figure 1).
Speed is increased by arranging thousands of these circuits in a horizontal array and allowing them to operate simultaneously.
The A/D conversion circuits used in Sony's CMOS image sensors have important characteristics,
including the reduced size of the analog circuits in which noise is created, and automatic noise cancellation.
This circuit design enables noise reduction to be combined with enhanced speed.